Cultural Psychology

What is Cross-Cultural Research?

Definition of culture and explanations: context and schemas

• Distinction between society, culture and subculture

Jessica J-Period 1- Defining Culture On this page there is different explanations of what culture/subculture can be defined as from different perspectives. This helps for a better understanding of all the questions about what culture is, there is no direct questions asking for a definition of culture/subculture.

Angela A - Period 1-
Anthropology in Theory: Social Statics or Communication Structures. (pgs. 142-143)
This excerpt gives one possible definition of society, saying that it consists of individuals and groups which communicate with one another.
This could also help with all the questions becuase it allows for a better understanding of what a society is.

• Importance of cultural context and its impact on behaviour

Kelsey R. - Period 1 - Matsumoto, D., Takeuchi, S., Andayani, S., Kouznetsova, N., & Krupp, D. (1998). The contribution of individualism-collectivism to cross-national differences in display rules.
This study reveals the differences in facial expressions amongst particpants from individualistic and collectivist societies when they react to different situations. This would be useful for essays # 1, 2, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15 and 17

Jessica V. block 2 - Pia Honold - Culture and Context: An Empirical Study for the Development of a framework for the elicitation of cultural influence in product usage This study looks into how cultures influence product usage and what factors influence the products chosen. applies to questions 7, 10, 16

Jeremy S.- Period 5- Zipora Shechtman, Aya Hiradin, Samahar Zina -The Impact of culture on group behavior: a Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups.This study compares the three ethnic groups of Jewish adolescents, Muslim adolescents, and the Druze in regards to their levels of self-disclosure, specifically self, family, friends, and feelings.

•Cognitive aspects of individual cultures, such as the formation of culture-specific schemas

Kayla H. - Period 1 - The impact of cultural education on adolescents and their comprehension of culture-specific reading material

It focuses on the impact of cultural education on adolescents and their comprehension of culture-specific reading material. It also indicates how well a particular culture relates to another through learning or experience. This study would be useful for questions 1, 4, 6, 10, 17

Dalia R. - Period 2 - Razi, S. - The Effects of Cultural Schema and Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension This study shows how cultural familiarization to a text that fits their schemata has a significant effect on reading comprehension. This can apply to the communication of humans across cultures. This study applies to essay questions: 1, 6, 10, 12, 17

Taylor J. - Period 5 - David J. Kelly - Three-Month-Olds, But Not Newborns, Prefer Own-Race Faces This study is testing newborns and young infants for sensitivity to ethnicity using a visual preference paradigm.

Luis P. Period 5 - Masuda & Nisbett - How Japanese and Americans observe different details of the same object This study replicated Kaiping Peng's study and showed that Japanese participants were more likely to report field information such as the color of the water, plant formation, and innert animals than Americans

Dimensions of cultural difference


Angie K. -2nd Period- Individualism and Collectivism: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Ingroup Relationships
This study analyzes the constructs of individualism and collectivism, and discusses the consequences and results of the emphasis on certain values. For example, in one study 3 different categories of questionnaires were given to participants. Each category pertained to different types of factors such as Self-Reliance With Competition, Concern for Ingroup, Distance from Outgroup. Each set of questions reveal what type of mentality, whether collectivist or individualist, the participant is conditioned to identify with.
These studies help answer essay questions 5,6,8,10,18

Hawk F. Period-5- Shinobu Kitayama:
Individualism and Collectivism: Self Construels; Independent and Interdependent
This study analyzes cultural variations in cognition, emotion, and motivation. Focusing on self construels in individuals of East Asian cultures and Americans.

Tina S. - 1st Period -
Goncalo- "Individualism-Collectivism and Group Behavior"
This study shows how individualistic groups instructed to be creative are more creative than collectivistic groups given the same instructions. This shows how although collectivistic values promote cooperation and productivity, individualistic values are beneficial in group settings where creativity is the goal.
This study helps answer Essay questions 1, 7, 8, 12, and 14

Leeann S. - 1st Period - Menon - **Culture and the Construal of Agency: Attribution to Individual Versus Group Disposition** This study explores how North Americans concieve of individual persons as a free agents, whereas East Asians conceptualize them as constrained and less agentic than socal collectives. Therefore, the study aims to prove East Asian perceivers are more likely than North Americans to focus on and attribute casuality to dispositions of collectives. This study helps answer Essay questions 1, 7, 8, 12, 14

Olivia L. - 1st Period -
Steven T. Mortenson - Sex, Communication Values, and Cultural Values: Individualism- Collectivism as a Mediator of Sex Differences in Communication Values in Two Cultures
In an effort to understand how socialization shapes value orientations, the current study examined the mediating role of individualism-collectivism on the connection between sex and communication values in two cultures, American and Chinese. Participants (97 Americans, 39 men and 58 women; 105 Chinese, 44 men and 61 women) completed scales providing assessments of communication values and individualism-collectivism. Regression analyses showed that collectivism was an especially strong mediator of the sex-communication values association among Americans, but not among Chinese. In addition, collectivism made strong, independent contributions to the prediction of communication values. These results are interpreted in terms of how broad-scale value orientations (such as collectivism) shape more specific orientations to particular forms and functions of communication.
This study helps answer essay questions: 5, 8, 14, 18

• Power Distance

Courtney M.- Period 1- Trust and Power Distance: a Psychological Perspective on Fairness in Restorative Justice Conferences- Sivasubramanian, Diane; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

Catherine E.- Period 5- Lee, Pillutla, & Law- Power-Distnace, Gender and Organizational Justice.
This study shows how employees viewed judgement calls made by their superior depending on the power distance orientation they had. This study can be applied to 1,2,3,4,6,7,9,10,12,13,15,16,17.

Debra R. - Period 1- Lim, John-The role of power distance and explanation facility in online bargaining utilizing software agents
This study that shows that work performance (satisfaction with product) increases when there is trust and a shorter distance of power. This study helps answer questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

Aryeh S- Period 2- Hofstede- Culturally Questionable- Identified dimension of power-distance of cultures in different countries. THis study shows the different power distance relations across cultures. This study applies to 1,2,3,4,6,7,9,10,12,13,15,16,17

Elizabeth Cupp - Period 5 - Marius van Dijke and Matthijs Poppe -
Motivations Underlying Power Dynamics in Hierarchially Structured Groups

• Cultural complexity, tight versus loose cultures

Nick S. - Period 1 - Harry C. Triandis - The Self and Social Behavior in Differing Cultural Contexts
This study explores the tightness/looseness of the American and Japanese culture and offers differing scenarios for these cultures to judge and exclaim their opinion, based on their cultural complexity as well.
This study helps answer essay questions #1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18.

Jon H. - Period 1 -
Husted - The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations
This study explains the relationship between a person's culture and how it affects their decision making in the business world. It shows how different cultures put different emphasis on different things and how it's tightness/looseness will affect a person.
This study hels explain essay questions 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 16.

Kelly B- Period 2: Gelfand-
Historical, Ecological, and Socio-Political Factors Affecting National Culture: Insight from Cross-Cultural Psychology
This study investigates the extremity of "situational constraint," or tightness, in various nations based on ecological, historical, socio-political, daily social, and psychological factors. This study helps answer questions #1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 16.

Maggie Powers- Period 2-
Murdock (1967)- Cross-Cultural Psychology
The study provides an insight into the effect of class and wealth distinctions and how they influence tight and loose societies. It also explores the pressures inflicted upon these different classes and how they plays a role in how the society functions.
This study helps answer essay questions:

Shelly N- Period 5-
Carpenter- Effects of Cultural Tightness and Collectivism on Self-Concept and Causal Attributions
This study uses a CD-ROM version of Human Relations Area Files to analyze the effects of the tightness or looseness of 16 cultures on self concept and behavior.

Neethu V- Period 5- Victor Florian , Mario Mikulincer , Aron Weller.
Does culture affect perceived family dynamics?: A comparison of Arab and Jewish adolescents in Israel
This study investigates the difference between "tight" and "loose" cultures and how they affect familial structures.
This study helps answer essay questions #1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 17.

Explanations of human behaviour—universal or culturally specific

• Problems in applying western theories to non- western cultures or vice versa

Sarah R. - Period 5 - L. J. Allred, R..C. Chia, K. L. Wuensch, J.J. Ren East Carolina University; D. M. Miao The Fourth Military Msedical University, Xian, China- In-Groups, Out-Groups and Middle-Groups In China and the United States

This study basically shows how Chinese and American citizens catagorize social relationships differently because of their culture. This study will help answer essay questions: 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 16

Greg S. - Period 5 - Rajnandini Pillai, Terri A. Scundara, Ethlyn A. Williams - Leadership and Organizational Justice: Similarities and Differences across Cultures If you have Questia access, you can view the complete study here.

This study examines leadership behaviors and organizational structures across five different cultures (USA, Australia, India, Columbia, Middle East).

This study helps answer the following essay questions: 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16

Sofia R. - 5th Period - Markus and Kitayama - Culture and Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion and Motivation

This study shows how people in different cultures describe themselves and it indicates how culture can affect whether they describe positive or negative attributes.
This study helps answer essay questions # 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8.

Shahana B. - Period 5- Ayala Malach-Pines, Haim Levy, Agnes Utasi, T.L. Hill- Title: Entrepreneurs as cultural heroes: A cross-cultural, interdisciplinary perspective
This study examines whether or not individuals will describe themselves as more entrepreneurial and will exhibit greater risk-taking tendency and if more will be involved in entrepreneurial activity in a country, where entrepreneurs have high status.
This helps to answer essay questions 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 16.

Justin H. - Period 2 - Souweidnane , L. Rowell Huesmann -
**The influence of American urban culture on the development of normative beliefs about aggression in middle-eastern immigrants**
This study examines the effect of ethnic community and culture on the development of normative beliefs of aggression. It focuses on youth from the United States and the Middle East and analyzes the effect of a number of influences, including prejudice, the media, and social interaction. This study can be used while answering questions 1, 4, 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, & 16

Maia F. - Period 2 - AKIBA, DAISUKE
**Cultural Variations in Body Esteem: How Young Adults in Iran and the United States View Their Own Appearances**
This study examines the effect culture has on how young women view themselves. Specifically, it looks at the media in Iran and the United States and how they influence perceptions of what is attractive. Applies to essay questions 1,2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16

ROSE C. - PERIOD 2 - Komarraju, M. ; Karau, S.J. ; Ramayah, T. - Cross-Cultural Differences in the Academic Motivation of University Students in Malaysia and the United States
This study examines the importance of culture in the academic motivation of students and therefore why the means by which we try to motivate students in Western societies may not be effective in other societies/cultures.
May be useful for essay questions 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 14, 16

• Development of indigenous psychologies as they relate to the needs of individual cultures

Smith & Nomi (2000). Chris Glidden- Period 5. A study researching the way a Japanese women relates to her child in comparison to American women.

Jessica Kegu Period 5 -
Lutz (1998) - This study demonstrates how South Pacific Ifaluk constructions of emotions contrast with Western ones ex. fago.

Problems in cross-cultural research

• Validating traditional theories in non-western cultures and vice versa

Kavin - Per. 1 - Sunita Mahtani Stewart and Michael Harris Bond - Problems uncovered while adapting Wester research to non-Western cultures- The goal of this article is to raise discussion both about the inconsistencies and lack of standarization of measures in the study of parenting and about guidlines for future studies charting new territory.

Rowshan C. Per.1- HZ Li (2006)
This study's goal was to see if Indian and Chinese were more interdependent than Anglo-Canadians and the Anglo Canadians were more independent than Chinese and Indians. It attempted to assess Kitiyama's and Markus' theory on independent and interdependent self construals. This should help answer questions 2,4, and 7.

Brett M. Per. 1 - Hee Sun Park , Ji Young Ahn -
Cultural Differences in Judgment of Truthful and Deceptive Messages
This study's goal was to investigate the relationship between culture and deceptive messages, this study examines cultural differences in the relationships among message types, willingness to say a message, and veracity judgment of the message.
This study helps answer questions 2, 4, 6, and 7.

• Language barriers and translation, including strategies such as back-translation

Kellie - Period 5 - de Mendoza (2008) -

Natecia-Period 5- Gudykunst and Nishida (1986):
Bridging Japanese/ North American Differences--This article aims to explore the cause of our troubles in communication that stem further than simply knowing the language but also its proper usage.

Ragel- Period 1- Wagner-
Cross-Cultural Comparisons and Translations across 10 Countries- This abstract discusses the study the difficulties that arose in translating the SF-36 (a multi-purpose, short-form health survey) in 10 different countries.
Essay Question #s 1, 4, 6, 9, 15, 17

Malik H. Pd. 1 - This study aims to explore back-translating for bilingual individuals.
Essay Questions: 1,3,4,5,9 at least...

Anysia P. Period 2- Bernard A, Whitaker M, Ray M, Rockich A, Barton-Baxter M, Barnes SL, Boulanger B, Tsuei B, Kearney P.-

Impact of language barrier on acute care medical professionals is dependent upon role. This study aims to prove that doctors and other medical professionals experience stress and a diminished effectiveness when hindered by barriers in language and communication. This study helps essay questions # 2, 4, 6, 7, 15, 17.

• Cultural bias in methodology

Jenna - Period 1 - A general overview of bias and validity issues in cross-cultural research -

Denise L. - Pd. 2 - Hannah Faye Chua, Janxin Leu, Richard E. Nisbett - Culture and Diverging Views of Social Events
Comparing East Asian and American views of everyday social events, research suggests that Americans tend to focus more on the self and to have a greater sense of personal agency than East Asians.Preguntas: #1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 16, 18.

Sarah M. - Period 2- Peng, Nisbett, Wong -Validity Problems Comparing Values Across Cultures and Possible Solutions
Commonly used methods of value surveys may have low validity in cross-cultural value comparisons because values can be affected by cultural differences in the understanding cetain value terms, the study compares Americans and Chinese then offers solutions.
This may help you with # 1, 4, 8, 9, 16

Brittany R. - 1st Period - Hector Betancourt and Steven Regeser Lopez -The Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race inAmerican Psychology
This research describes methodological flaws in cultural psychology by both mainstream and cross-cultural psychologists, and includes empirical research on how methodological generalizations and biases can lead to a misinterpretation of psychological findings.
This may help you with # 1, 4, 9, 14, 16

Sharhat S.-Period 5- Chen, Kasef, Himsel, Greenberger, Dong, Xue- Creativity in Drawings of Geometric Shapes
This study examines whether European Americans and Chinese differ in their creation and evaluation of drawings of geometric shapes.
This may help you with number 1,4,9

Implications of cultural differences on human understanding and interaction


• Comparison of high-context and low-context cultures in areas such as self-disclosure, direct and indirect communication styles

AlLeN g- PeRiOd OnE- Kim- The Impact of cultural difference in communcation style of deception
A Comparison between U.S. and Korea on issues related to deception detection and identification of nonverbal cues distinguishing truth from lies.

Marc G - PD.1-Lapinski, Maria Knight, Levine, Timothy R - Culture and information manipulation theory: The effects of self-construal and locus of benefit on information manipulation
This paper offers a preliminary exploration into how culture and cultural orientation influence the perception of deceptive messages.

Katie S- Period 5- Young-ok Yum & Kazuya Hara (2005)-
Computer Mediated Relationship Development: A Cross-Culural Comparison
This paper discusses self-diclosure over internet relationships in cultures such as US, Japan, and Korea. This compares self-disclosure in both high and low context cultures.
This study can answer questions: 2, 3, 8, 10, & 16. :)

JordanM - Period Five - Elizabeth Wurtz (2005) -
A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Websites from High-Context Cultures and Low-Context Cultures - A study of how high and low context cultures use the internet and how this effects communication.

• Role of non-verbal communication, such as interpersonal distance, pheromones

James T. period 1. - THE ROLE OF THE CULTURAL FACTORS ÎN THE VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION . NOTE: nonverbal does nt start until the end of page 1003. enjoy =)

Ariana J. - period 5- Hall-
Interpersonal Distance-Proxemics
This study reveals how interpersonal distance plays a part in four different types of interaction and communication
This study goes with questions 4,6,7,12,15,16,17,18

Esther P. period 2.-
This study discusses and interviews how teachers from United States and Turkey have different interpersonal distance.Turkish people have a much closer personal distance than americans.
this study helps answer:1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

Laura H. - period 2-
Shu Li- How Close is Too Close? A comparison of proxemic reactions of Singaporean Chinese to male intruders of four ethnicities
This study explores the closest interpersonal distance at which males feel comfortable with males of other ethnicities.
This study helps answer: 2, 3, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

Self and cultural identity

• Individualist and collectivist conceptions of self

Christian K. - Period 1 - Chung, Mallery - Social Comparison, Individualism-Collectivism, and Self-Esteem in China and the United States- In this study Chinese and American students were interviewed to determine if (and how) they compare themselves to others which was used to determine how individualistic or collectivistic they were. These results were contrary to the results of other studies of the sort.
Applies to essay questions 3, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16,

MacEachern, M - Period 5 - Heejung Kim and Hazel Rose Markus - Deviance or Uniqueness, Harmony or Conformity? - This study explores differences in cultural values with regards to personality traits which in turn can give insight into the self

Claire M. Period 1.
Eaton L, Louw J. Culture and self in South Africa: individualism-collectivism predictions. This study explores whether people from collectivist cultures have more concrete and interdependent self-concepts than do people from individualist cultures.
Applies to essay questions 1,3,8,10,14,16.

Athena Gardner - Period 2 - Yi, Jung-Soo- Individualism-Collectivism: A Study of College Students in Four Countries This study explore current positions in the individualism-collectivism dimension degrees between Asian people and North Americans.
Applies to essay questions 2,3,7,8,10,14,16

Sophie Ann - Period 5 -
Individualism and Collectivism: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Ingroup Relationships The main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality.

• Personal identity and social identity

Nick M. Period 5. Thelen K. Music Television and Social Identity: A Study of First Year College Students and Sophomore This study examines the links between the development of social identity in college students and their use of music television.

Josh B- Period 2- Festinger, L.: A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. This study examines people's personal evaluations as compared with their given society.

Symone B. - Period 5 -
Elias, Troy., Gong, Li. and Appiah, Osei. "Effects of Black’s Strength of Ethnic Identity on Consumer Attitudes: A Multiple-Group Model Approach" This study examines the role of ethnic identity as a means of understanding Blacks’ responses to Black and White product endorsers on an e-commerce website, and also evaluates the race of a character in an ad as a moderator of consumer attitudes. Applies to essay questions: 3, 7, 8, 10, 16