Health Psychology


Stress

• Describe stressors


Will P., Period 2, Montgomery Cameron, Andre Rupp, A Meta-Analysis for the Diverse Causes and Effects of Stress on Teachers.This correlational study examines how reports of teachers' performances reveal what stresses them, similar to Lau's attribution study in that the teachers were not explicitly participants.

Dilshan. R., Period 2, Joyce Serido, David M. Almeida, Elaine Wethington Chronic Stressors and Daily Hassles: Unique and Interactive Relationships with Psychological DistressThe study examines the unique and interactive effects of role-related chronic stressors and daily hassles in the domains of work and family on psychological distress.

Daniel N., Period 5, Peggy Barksdale & Jane Backer (2005), Health-related stressors experienced by patients who underwent total knee replacement seven days after being discharged home. This study examines the stressors on patients at home after the first few weeks of knee replacement surgery, attempting to describe them. The study found that stressors relating to pain management and bowel difficulties were most prominent suggesting that preoperative education of patients requires improvement.

Terry F., Period 1, HEATHER HINDS W. JEFFREY BURROUGHS - "How You Know When You're Stressed: Self Evaluations of Stress" This study tested various variables in order to eventually classify stress cues into three categories. Two were more "physical and affective" changes that were associated with stress. The third dealt with "changes in daily routine", which was associated with stress in a "less obvious" way.

Devon J., Period 5, Patrica Voydanoff(1980), Work Roles as Stressors in Corporate Families
This study examines the impact of stressors that deal with work roles and how it affects corporate families. Employment insecurity and career mobility, and job content are a few of the work role stressors.

Jenessa B., Period 1, The Nature of Stress this article explains and illistrates the nature of stress and stress related body responses.

Alexandria L., Period 1,Hans Selye, Selye's Concept of a General Adaptation Syndrome This background article reveals how stress stimulates biological responses and further research found by Dr. Hans Selye.

• Discuss physiological, psychological and social aspects of stress.


Thomas Cirino, period 5, Leila M. Soravia (2006), Glucocorticoids Reduce Phobic Fear in Humans
This study examines the effect of the level of glucocorticoids in humans on reducing the impact of phobic fear. The higher the level of glucocorticoids, the less debilitating the symptoms are from the phobia.

Ankit P , period 5,Paul E. Spector(2002), Employee Control and Occupational Stress
This study examines the importance of the perception of control in social behavior in the work environment. Loss of control yields negative emotions and negative physiological damage including headache and hypertension.

Kyle Evans, period 5, Margaret E. Kemeny(2003), The Psychobiology of Stress
This meta study analizes the general and specific physiological affects of stress on individuals and how differently certain individuals appraise stress and cope.

Scott Cirino, period 1, Miller and Cohen (2002)
In a large study involving parents of both children with cancer and parents with children who were relatively healthy, the results showed that chronic psychological stress might reduce the immune system's reactions to hormonal secretions that were normally used to fight the inflammatory response.

Cat Trimble, period 1, Henderson (1999) Ethano, Oxidative Stress, Reactive Aldehydes, and the fetus
This study examines the effect that maternal ethanol and oxidative stress has on fetal tissue. It concludes that maternal ethanol induces stress which causes toxic reactions of the fetus to ethanol.

Viance Locke, Period 2, Barth, Blythe (1983) ; The Contribution of Stress to Child Abuse Essay analyzes the effects of stress on child abuse through the examination of "phenomenal, life change, and social."

Viance Locke, Period 2, Striker, Luippold, Nagy, Liese, Bigelow, Mundt; Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travelers Study examines psychological stress and its triggers specifically among international business travelers.

Tarah Nanton, Period 2, Takkouche, Regueira; A Cohort Study of Stress and the Common Cold The study examines stress on the naturally acquired common cold.

• Evaluate strategies for coping with stress - stress inoculation therapy,


Bevyn S. (period 5) / Roberson (1985) - The Effects of Stress Inoculation Training with Young Adolecents- This study is a in depth analsys of the effects of stress inoculation therapy in a classroom setting for early adolecents. The study helps develop the theory of stress inoculation as well as give an step-by-step proceedure for the therapy.

Chris V. (period 5) / Christopher Lee (2002)- Treatment of PTSD: Stress Inoculation Training with Prolonged Exposure Compared to EMDR
This studyy was a test on 26 participants who were diagnosed with PTSD. Each were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions, either Stress Inoculation Training(SITPE) or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

David F. / Meichenbaum (1996) - Stress Inoculation Training for Coping with Stressors.
This study was reprinted from The Clinical Psychologist, 49, 4-7. It deals with the basics of stress inoculation training and discusses how this method can be useful for people dealing with stressful situations.

Danielle J. / Lee et.al (2002) - Use of Stress Inoculation Training on Patients With PTSD.
This study shows that while SIT is useful, other methods to help those dealing with stress may be more effective.

Danielle Ragofsky/ Foa (1999)- A Comparison of Exposure Therapy, Stress Inoculation Training, and Their Combination for Reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Assault Victims. This study examines the use of various stress managing methods and their effectivesness

Josh B. / Rose and Veiga (1984)- Assessing the Sustained Effects of a Stress Management Intervention on Anxiety and Locus of Control
This study examines the effectiveness of stress innoculation therapy in business management students, comparing the participants' levels of anxiety before and after the commencement of the therapy. See page 196 for the graph showing the differences.

Logan J. and Nabeel H. / Lee, Gavriel, Drummond, Richards, Greenwald (2002) - Treatment of PTSD: Stress Inoculation Training with Prolonged Exposure Compared to EMDR
This study compares stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure (SITPE) with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR does slightly better than SITPE.

Amaryllis R. / Waelde and Thompson (2004) - A pilot study of a yoga and meditation intervention for dementia caregiver stress.
This study examines whether the daily practice of meditation, yoga, and other exercises affect the levels of stress, physical pain, and even fatigue.

• Evaluate strategies for coping with stress - hardiness training,


Alex S. / Salvatore R. Maddi (2007) - Relevance of Hardiness Assessment and Training to the Military Context
This study assesses hardiness training and examines the applications of hardiness training within a military context. However, this is not an experiment; it is observational and analytical.

Conor T. / Paul T. Bartone, Robert R. Roland, James J. Picano and Thomas J. Williams - Psychological Hardiness Predicts Success in US Army Special Forces Candidates
The study expresses the effectiveness of hardiness training in stress tolerance and high performance under stressful situations by assessing for hardiness in US Army Special Forces candidates.

Michele D. (period 2) / Thomson & Wendt (1995) - Contribution of Hardiness and School Climate to Alienation Experienced by Student Teachers
This study shows that through the use of hardiness training, one may prevent alienation and the stress that comes with it.

Sarah L. (Period 2) / Salvatore Maddi (2007) - Relevance of Hardiness Assessment and Training to the Military Context
This study shows how hardiness training is used within the military and how may prevent and help to cope with stress.

• Evaluate strategies for coping with stress - yoga and meditation and dance therapy.

Akida A. (Period 5) / Asha Persson (2007), Intimate Immensity: Phenomenology of Place and Space in an Australian Yoga Community.
This study is about how yoga betters the self.

Devika P. (Period 5) / Chandra Patel, M. G. Marmot, D. J. Terry, M. Carruthers, Barbara Hunt, Malini Patel (1985),Trial Of Relaxation In Reducing Coronary Risk: Four Year Follow Up.
This study is about how yoga reduces coronary risks by breathing exercises.

Estefania G. (Period 5) / Luciano Bernardi, Peter Sleight, Gabriele Bandinelli, Simone Cencetti, Lamberto Fattorini, Johanna Wdowczyc-Szulc, Alfonso Lagi (Dec. 22 - 29, 2001), Effect Of Rosary Prayer And Yoga Mantras On Autonomic Cardiovascular Rhythms: Comparative Study.
This study is about how meditation and yoga can better stressful situations.

Chase H. (Period 1) / West et al (2004) - Effects of hatha yoga and african dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol
West's study shows that yoga was an effective way to reduce stress related cortisol levels, while African Dance was not.

Chase H. (Period 1) / Shestopal (1998)- Psychological effects of physical exercise and yoga
Shestopal's study shows that yoga was unable to decrease stress of university studets.

Chase H. (Period 1) / IF YOU CLICK THE LINK, A PDF WILL AUTOMATICALLY DOWNLOAD TO YOUR COMPUTER, SO DON'T CLICK IT IF YOU DON'T WANT THAT TO HAPPEN Harris (2007) - Dance/movement therapy approaches to fostering resilience and recovery among African adolescent torture survivors
Harris's study found African Dance/Movement Therapy (DMT) to be successful in reducing anxiety and stress in Africans who had witnessed or been around severe destruction and traumatizing events.

Deonna W. (Period 2) / Shapiro Teaching Self-Care to Caregivers
This is a study that tests different Yoga and Meditation techniques on Therapists in training in an attempt to reduce level of stress.

Substance abuse, addictive behaviour and obesity

• Explain factors related to the development of substance abuse or addictive behaviour.


Jonathan O. (Period 1) / Harolyn M. E. Belcher, MD; Harold E. Shinitzky, PsyD (1998) - Substance Abuse In Children
This study examines the causes and the prevention of substance abuse in children. Mostly centered around factors that occur before the actual substance abuse begins.

Maria A. (Period 1) / Brady, Back, Coffey (2004) - Substance Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
This study examines PTSD-SUD co-occurrence. Among those seeking treatment for substance use disorders, 36% to 50% met the criteria for lifetime PTSD.

Chelsea A. (Period 5) / Dean G. Kilpatrick, Ron Acierno, Benjamin Saunders, Heidi S. Resnick, Connie L. Best. Paula P. Schnurr (200) - Risk Factors for Adolescent Substance Abuse and Dependence Data From a National Sample
This study discussed the factors that cause or increase substance/drug abuse. This was an telephone interview to national household probability sample of 4,023 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. During this telephone interview, questions about substance use, victimization experiences, familial substance use,and post traumatic reactions were asked. The study showed that the dependence upon substance abuse is greatly influenced by physical abuse, sexual abuse, those who have witnessed violence, or who have family members with alcohol or drug use problems, and post traumatic stress disorder.

Chelsea A. (Period 5) / Shih-Ming Li, Teng-Ming Chung (2006) - Internet function and Internet addictive behavior
This study addresses the reasoning behind addictive behavior and it's potential causes. Seventy-six college students were included in this study and had completed the Internet use function questionnaire. The results shows that their addictive behavior was the cause of wanting to be social involved.

Jessica C. (Period 2) / Reinout Wiers, Bruce Bartholow (2006) - Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: A review and a model
This model presents a review and a model of the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents, with a focus on alcohol. The model proposes that addictive behaviors develop as the results of an imbalance between two systems: an appetitive, approach-oriented system that becomes sensitized with repeated alcohol use and a regulatory executive system that is not fully developed and that is not fully developed and that is compromised by exposure to alcohol.

Holly M. (Period 2) / Houri and Hammoud (2005) - Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student’s Perception and Addiction Rates
This study analyzes addictive behaviors related to substance abuse by looking at a variety of personal characteristics, such as age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status, and financial status. It is important to know that the study was conducted in Lebanon, so there are quite a few cultural differences to take note of. In addition to identifying factors that make students more prone for addiction, the study also looks at one's self-perception in regard to addiction.

Alex C. (Period 5) / Young and Rodgers (1998) - The Relationship Between Depression and Internet Addiction
312 surveys were collected, including 130 males and 129 females. These findings suggest that increased levels of depression are associated with those who become addicted to the internet. This suggest that clinical depression is significantly associated with increased levels of personal internet use.

Meghan L. (Period 4)/ Jentsch & Taylor (1999)- Impulsitivity Resulting From Frontostriatal Dysfunction in Drug Abuse: Implications for the Control of Behavior by Reward-related Stimuli http://www.springerlink.com/content/b8x4lh7w5udu977e/ In this review, evidence has been presented that indicates that chronic drug consumption can result in growth control of behavior by drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Research supports the notion that the direct effects of drugs on the neurochemistry of the amygdala may contribute to altered stimulus-reward learning in drug addiction.

Andrei B. (Period 4) / Shedler and Block (1990) - Adolescent Drug Use and Psychological Health
In the study, adolescent drug use has been shown to be a symptom of different problems resulting in early childhood years. The experimenters believe that as a results of different childhood events, such as the lack of parental attention, trouble fitting in a social group, physical abuse, and many more, adolescents turn to drug use in order to cope with their lives.

• Examine prevention strategies and treatments for substance abuse and addictive behaviour (for example, Alcoholics Anonymous, family therapy, drugs and biopsychosocial treatments).

Bussis A.(Per. 2)- Sven Andreasson, Kerstin Hjalmarsson, and Charlotta Rehnman-Implenmentation and Dissemination of Methods for Prevention of Alcohol Problems in Primary Healthcare A Feasibility Study

Secondary Prevention methods of alcohol problems in health care.

The "No-Problem Problem": A Family Therapy Approach for Certain First-Time Adolescent Substance Abusers

Eastwood, Sweeney, and Piercy's study shows how family therapy is useful in treating substance abuse specifically with the use of the "No-Problem Problem Model."

Vanessa Fernandez (P.2) - Paula M Lantz, Peter D Jacobson - Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies.
This study explores prevention and control techniques that can reduce smoking cigarettes in young adults. Some discussed include school based and community interventions, tobacco and youth access restrictions, and mass media education.

Arshey Rahman (Period 4)- Katherine Grady, Kelin E. Gersick and Marsha Boratynski Preparing Parents for Teenagers: A Step in the Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse
The study explores the six steps in the "Preparing Parents for Teenagers" program which takes into consideration the impact that the parent has upon the development of the child. It is a prevention strategy against adolescent substance abuse. The effectiveness of the program is also examined in the journal article.

Ashritha Nakkana (P. 4) - Sylvie Fainzang When Alcoholics Are Not Anonymous
This is a field study exploring a different method of group counseling in treating alcoholics. It contrasts with Alcoholics Anonymous and has very different methods and guidelines. It is based in France and the results concluded based on observation.

Jeremy Clayton( Period 5)- Evelyn A. Cage and Annette S. Kluck �48�The Path to Treatment: Does it Matter? Relapse and the Reason for Seeking Treatment
This study explored how effective ultimatums are in treating IWAs ( Individuals With Addictions).

Maria Esters ( Period 5)- William R. Miller, Robert J. Meyers and J. Scott Tonigan �51�Engaging the Unmotivated in the Treatment of Alcohol Problems: A Comparison of Three Strategies for Intervention Through Family Members.
This study consisted of randomized clinical trial, 130 concerned others were offered 1 of 3 different counseling strategies.

Alicia Leva (period 1) - John McKellar, Eric Stewart, and Keith Humpherys-Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement and Positive Alcohol-Related
This study explores the idea of whether Alcholics Anonymous involvment is effective because of a positive causal relationship through the study of 2,319 male veterans that are alcohol dependent patients from the Veteran Affairs Medical Center.

Valerie Copan (Period 1) / Alcoholics Anonymous and the Disease Concept of Alcoholism
This study evaluates the connection between disease alcoholism and how effective the "treatment" of Alcoholics Anonymous is.

Nazia Aijaz (Period 1) / Patrick J Hart http://www.thehartcenter.com/drugcounselorDetails.php?id_drugcounselor=14
This study examines the six stages of Change Model-stages of how addiction starts and how to overcome it.

• Discuss factors related to overeating and the development of obesity.

Al'Teria Latrice (block 2): Jean Mayer Obesity: Causes and treatments-Obesity is the number one health problem, however its underlying cause is still unknown. This article explains regulation in appetite, sugar and hunger, and genetics are the cause of obesity.

Emily K (1st) -- Hill & Peters, Environmental Contributions to the Obesity Epidemic
This study focuses primarily on the environmental factors that contribute to obesity, specifically an environment that encourages overeating and discourages physical activity. It does recognize how this environment is especially harmful to humans, a species that has evolved highly effected mechanisms to retain body weight but poor mechanisms to lose it.

Gustavo, Escarate, (Period 1) J. Alfredo Martinez, Body-weight regulation: causes of obesity.(http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=797124&jid=PNS&volumeId=59&issueId=03&aid=797112) This article explains the different methods of how a person can become “obese”, including such ways as through genetics, Dietary factors, and biological factors (the actual hormones and enzymes).

Austin, Ringer, (Period 1) Alicja Wolk, A Prospective Study of Obesity and Cancer Risk. The study outlines the heightened risk of cancer for people who are diagnosed as obese; takes place in Sweden.

Austin, Ringer, (Period 1) Elisabetta De Vito, Overweight and Obesity among Secondary School Children in Central Italy. This study focuses on the growing demographic of obese people- children. It utilizes a broad sample to calculate multiple statistics on adolescents in secondary schools.

Austin, Ringer, (Period 1) C. Bazelmans, Is Obesity Associated with Injuries among Young People? Study seeks to answer the unique research question in its title. More specifically injuries related to sports.

Madison W (block 2): David L. Margules, Beatriz Moisset, Michael J. Lewis, Haruo Shibuya and Candace B. Pert- Endorphin is associated with overeating in genetically obese mice and rats.This study shows that the excess pituitary B-endorphin may play a role in the development of the overeating and obesity syndrome.

Vera, B, F. Soriguer, Prevalence of Obesity in South-East Spain and Its Relation with Social and Health Factors.
This study was undertaken in Pizarra (Malaga, Spain) from a random sample of the population between 18 and 65 years of age. All participants were interviewed and given a physical examination. Standardized anthropometrical measurements were made, and a baseline blood sample was taken after an oral glucose tolerance test.

Jennifer,V, M. A. A. Moussa, Factors Associated with Obesity in Kuwaiti Children.
This study reports familial and environmental factors associated with childhood obesity. The authors carried out a pair-matched case-control study including 460 obese school children 6 to 13 years old. Physical activity and parental social class were not significant. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that family history of obesity, and diabetes mellitus, respiratory and bone diseases in children were significant associated factors with obesity after adjusting for social and behavioral factors.

Michelle, L, Stephen O'Rahilly, Genetics of Obesity
Inter-individual differences in susceptibility to obesity have strong genetic determinants. This is particularly important, as it is only in the past decade that we have begun to obtain substantive information regarding the molecular constituents of pathways controlling mammalian energy balance and therefore, for the first time, are in a position to a sxplochieve a better mechanistic understanding of this disease. Population-based association and linkage studies have highlighted a number of loci at which genetic variation is associated with obesity and related phenotypes and the identification and characterization of monogenic obesity syndromes has been particularly fruitful.

Andrew V., Period 1 Nicole H. Falkner, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Mary Story, Robert W. Jeffery, Trish Beuhring, and Michael D. Resnick
Social, Educational, and Psychological Correlates of Weight Status in Adolescents (2001)
Falkner et al. is a cross-sectional study that examines different weight classes in a sample of 9,943 public school students (4742 males, 5201 females). The research data is composed of the students' social status, psychological status, educational status, future goals, height and weight information (self-reported), and personal details (i.e. race/ethnicity and parent's occupation). Since this study examines various social, biological, and psychological factors involved with all weight brackets, the factors associated with obesity can be inferred/noted.

Andrew V., Period 1
Claire M. Williams, Tim C. Kirkham
Anandamide induces overeating: mediation by central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors (1999)
An investigation into biological factors involved with overeating. The sample consisted of male Lister-Hooded rats which were selectively given different dosages of Anandamide. In Experiment Two, eight of the rats were given Anandamide, along with an antagonizing agent.

Celine R., Period 1 Gene-Jack Wang, Julia Yang
Gastric Stimulation in Obese Subjects Activates the Hippocampus and Other Regions Involved in Brain Reward Circuitry
Using 7 obese subjects, the participants underwent an Implantable Gastric Simulator for 1-2 years. They went through a PET scan and questionnaire to investigate brain metabolism and the role of the vagus nerve and hippocampus in terms of overeating and obesity as well as the emotional toll the procedure had on participants.

Kerriann B., Period 5
-The Social Psychology of Dieting
Johanna T. Dwyer, Jacob J. Feldman and Jean Mayer
this generally talks about different types of eating disorders and the psychological background of eating disorders. There is a section that includes overeating.
-Psychophysics of Sweet and Fat Peceptions in Obesity: Problems, Solutions and New Perspectives
Linda M. Bartoshuk, Valerie B. Duffy, John E. Hayes, Howard R. Moskowitz and Derek J. Snyder
This article is about psycholoical things that cause and can cure obesity

Eileen C. (Period5)
Phillip Goldblatt, Mary E. Moore, Albert Stunkard
http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/192/12/1039.full.pdf+html
Discusses how socioeconomic status is a factor to obesity and the time frame that a family has been in a country in another factor leading to obesity.

• Discuss prevention strategies and treatments for overeating and obesity.

Alyza E/ Period 4- Lei, Zhang, & Wang; Shows pomegranate leaf extract and its effects on reducing weight and appetite.
Evidence of anti-obesity effects of the pomegranate leaf extract in high-fat diet induced obese mice

Sonia D/ Period 4- O'brien, Dixon, & Brown; Discusses the effectiveness of Gastric bands on patients who use them and their efficiency based on size of the person beforehand
The Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band (Lap-Band ® ): A Prospective Study of Medium-Term Effects on Weight, Health and Quality of Life

Laura H/ Period 4- Thomas; Discusses different prevention methods for obesity, etc.
Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Diabetes by Bile Acid–Binding Resi

Ode A -Ebbeling et.al- A Reduced-Glycemic Load Diet in the Treatment of Adolescent Obesity
Discusses prevention strategies related to the development of adolescent obesity. Reduced-Glycemic loads in adolescent diets reduces obesity.

Nahshon Rolllins Birch and Ventura ;"Preventing childhood obesity: what works ? Preventing childhood obesity"
Rates of overweight in North American children and adolescents have increased dramatically since the 1970s. Health PsychPreventing childhood obesity: what works?Preventing childhood obesity

Paul M., Period 5:
1) Khan, Sobush, Keener, Goodman, Lowry, Kakietek, Zaro (2009), Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States
This study gives some recommendations pertaining to obesity through conducted research.

2) O’Rahilly and Farooqi (2006), Genetics of Obesity
This study considers various genetic reasons for why people suffer from obesity.

3) Blair, Jacobs and Powell (1985), Relationships between Exercise or Physical Activity and Other Health Behaviors
This study shows how there is a relationship between physical exercise and how it can affect health behaviors in positive ways.

Leona J, Period 5: Braet (2004), Inpatient Treatment for Children With Obesity, Weight Loss, Psychological Well-being, and Eating Behavior
Their Objective: "Evaluated the effects of a 10-month inpatient treatment program and implemented as a nondiet healthy lifestyle approach. In addition, the effects of two extended treatment programs were compared to a standard cognitive–behavioral treatment program for maintenance of the treatment gains."

Andrew V., Period 1
H. Bjorvell amd S. Rossner
Long Term Treatment of Severe Obesity: Four Year Follow Up Of Results Of Combined Behavioural Modification Programm(1985)
A sample consisting of 107 severely overweight patients underwent a four-year long obesity treatment program. All subjects were referred to a hospital for their weight problem. The treatments were comprised of nutritional and behavioral alterations to the subject's daily lives.

Joshmarie B (Period 1)
DOG WALKING AND OBESITY PREVENTION: A METHODS DEVELOPMENT STUDY
This talks about making a programe to fight obesity and overweight by increasing dog walking as a family excercise.

Health promotion


• Examine models and theories of health promotion - health belief model

Connor J, Perid 5, Fulton et al. (1987), A Study Guided by The Health Belief Model of The Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening of Women Ages 40 and older
This study demonstrates that women of Rhode Island will go for screenings more based on how they perceive the dangers of breast cancer and thier awarness.

Oliver S, Period 5, Quist-Paulsen et al. (2003), Randomised Controlled Trial of Smoking Cessation Intervention After Admission for Coronary Heart Disease
This study demonstrates that individuals will take a health-related action if they think that a negative health problem can be avoided by taking the recommended action.

Megan D, Period 4, Becker (1977), Health Belief Model, This study shows the prediction and dietary compliance with the health belief model with the use of mother's and their obese children.

• Examine models and theories of health promotion - stages of change model


Lindsey H - Ajzen (1991) The Theory of Planned Behavior
A theory/model to explain why someone behaves a certain way (as in why they would try to be healthy and take care of themselves).

Libby, M. (1)/ Silvia Font-Mayolas (2008) Experimentation and Stages of Acquisition for Tobacco Consumption in Spanish Adolecsents
The purpose of the study is to develop guidelines for tailoring interventions and also to investigate the utility of incorporation the experimentation variable into the stages of change model.

Alexandra, D. / Carlo C. DiClemente (1993) Changing Addictive Behaviors: A Process Perspective
This is about a collection of studies, including some that DiClemente was involved with and the implications of the stages of change model, also known as the transtheoretical model. DiClemente discusses how the stages of change model has successfully helped with interventions, psychological treatment, and "has stimulated new ways of thinking about individuals, natural groupings of individuals, treament seekers, and self-changers." He demonstrated through experimental research how the stage and process according to the model, can predict whether change is likely to be successful. Helpful from pg. 102-105, including the charts.

Alexandra, I./ Michael Vallis Stages of Change for Healthy Eating in Diabetes
The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of patients with diabetes and their drive to achieve a healthier lifestyle and better eating habits while utilizing the stages of change model.

Hayley, T, (5) Lyndal Khaw and Jennifer L. Hardesty, Theorizing the Process of Leaving: Turning Points and Trajectories in the Stages of Change
The Stages of Change Model has been used to explore women's process of leaving relationships involving intimate partner violence. Using a strengths-based approach, this study aims to build upon the model to further theorize the process of leaving. The study included interviews with 19 mothers who left their abusive husbands. Turning points marked mothers' movements from one stage of change to another, resulting in linear and nonlinear trajectories of leaving.

Juliana S. (2003) R.P. Riemsma - Applying the transtheoretical model to pregnancy and STD prevention: a review of the literature.
This study shows that there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the stages of change model on helping people quit smoking.

Bret M. / Rosenstock (1966) Why People Use Health Services
The purpose of this article "to increase professional health workers’ knowledge of selected research findings and theory so that they may better understand why and under what conditions people take action to prevent, detect and diagnose disease" and "to increase awareness among qualified behavioral scientists about the kinds of behavioral research opportunities and needs that exist in public health."

• Examine models and theories of health promotion - theory of reasoned action


Courtney H. (period 2) / Paul M. Herr - Whither Fact, Artifact, and Attitude: Reflections on the Theory of Reasoned Action
The purpose of this article is to discuss concerns raised about the implementation of the theory of reasoned action as well as to provide support for the theory of reasoned action in the form of additional theories that build upon and complement it.

Kaitlin, K. Period 2. Bagozzi, Wong, Abe, and Bergami. Cultural and Situational Constingencies and the Theory of Reasoned Action: Application to Fast Food Restaurant Consumption
This stdy tested the extent that decisions regarding consumption of fast food are based on peer pressure.

Krystal S. Period 1, Gillmore et al, Teen Sexual Behavior: Applicability of the Theory Of Reasoned Action.
This study aimes to examine if prior sexual experience influences sexual intercourse among teenagers. The researchers found that prior experience and sexual intercourse were positively correlated; there was not much of a difference between boys and girls

• Discuss the effectiveness of health promotion strategies - measurement of outcomes




• Discuss the effectiveness of health promotion strategies - cultural blindness




• Discuss the effectiveness of health promotion strategies - cognitive dissonance


Erskine R. (Period 05) -Stellefson - Intentions to Change Diet and Physical Activities Among College Students
When college students are made to feel cognitive dissonance about their diet and exercise behaviors, they may be more likely to
adopt healthier diet and exercise habits.